Antibiotic use for respiratory tract infections is the mainstay therapy in primary care but a recent study shows that hospital reconsultations with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) can be significantly reduced with delayed antibiotic prescription.   Infections of the respiratory tract are a regular reason for primary care consultations and patients often present
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Obesity is common among older adults and has been found to exacerbate age-related functional decline and contribute to frailty. Researchers found that the most effective strategy to elicit weight loss while maintaining physical function and preserving lean muscle mass and bone mineral density is a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training in addition to
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Researchers find no evidence to suggest that exposure to dogs or farm animals in an infant’s first year of life is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes.   In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers associated with three Swedish universities and their affiliates questioned whether early exposure to dogs and other animals, which carry many
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive autoimmune disease which interrupts the transmission of nerve impulses, impairing both body function and movement.  While this often leads to a decrease in overall physical activity, a recent study found evidence that individuals with MS and an increased risk of falling walked even less each day than did individuals
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A cohort study in Japan investigated the relationship between eating citrus fruits and developing dementia later in life. The authors controlled for a number of confounding factors, and found that the consumption of citrus is linked with lower incidence of dementia.   Neurodegeneration leading to loss of cognitive function, generally referred to as dementia, is
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Exercise is linked to a longer, healthier life but the mechanisms are unclear. To determine how exercise and health are linked, Tucker shows in Preventive Medicine that physical activity is associated with longer telomeres, which are linked to reduced cellular aging.   Exercise reduces the risk of many chronic diseases, including diabetes and hypertension, and
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Diagnosis of mild-cognitive impairment (MCI) and, in many cases, the subsequent incident dementia in the elderly has proven to be difficult with current methods such as cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis. An article in JAMA Neurology discusses how a dual-task gait performance paradigm was used successfully as a diagnostic marker of progression to dementia in elderly
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Recent research published in JAMA Psychiatry investigated depressive symptoms prior to dementia diagnoses and found no evidence to suggest that depression and dementia are linked.   A team of researchers at the University College London, in England, conducted a study to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptoms and how they relate to later diagnoses of
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The development of oral language skills is a central measure of child development in elementary school, and failure to develop these skills may create life-long difficulties for children. In a recent study, researchers identified within-child biological, familial, and social factors associated with oral language skills at age 11 based on children’s levels of language development.
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Vaccine concept Influenza virus infection during pregnancy can increase the risk of hospitalization and illness when compared to non-pregnant women. Year-round vaccination during pregnancy may decrease the associated morbidities in mothers and their infants, and may have better overall efficacy than seasonal vaccinations.   Each year many people worldwide are infected with the influenza virus,
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Researchers out of France and Monaco recently finished one of the longest and largest studies on Alzheimer’s disease. The study focused on using multidomain lifestyle intervention with Omega 3 supplementation for Alzheimer’s patients. The results, unfortunately, were insignificant, but do provide swaths of new data and show potential for new treatment approaches that are less
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A phase two randomized controlled trial determined the role of immune plasma in treating patients diagnosed with severe influenza and exhibiting respiratory compromise. A pandemic influenza outbreak is a serious international concern. Immediate containment of the disease is necessary, along with fast implementation of preventative measures. Plasma treatment has been identified as a solution for
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Muscle fatigue is a common outcome of intensive exercise regimes, and can ultimately lead to muscle damage. This occurs when the body produces increased levels of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress. A recent study demonstrated that green tea and sour tea supplements, which have proven antioxidant properties, can reduce oxidative stress in male
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A team from the UK used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to apply an alternative approach to the study of child language development. Quantile Analysis revealed that the association between factors such as poverty, early reading and TV and the outcome of language development is not equal across the population.   Language development
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Within the health community, the use of medical marijuana is controversial.  Recently, a German-Israeli research team found evidence that small, controlled amounts of the active ingredient in marijuana, THC, improved cognitive function and memory in older mice.   Dementia is a general term used to describe cognitive decline in older people caused by damage to
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Depressive disorders can develop during or after pregnancy, and studies have shown that they increase risk of maternal suicide and complications such as low birthweight and infant malnutrition. A recent study published in the Lancet Psychiatry identified clinical differences in perinatal depressive symptoms based on symptom type, severity, and timing of onset.   According to
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Music therapy is a promising tool in the treatment of Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. A new course offered by Ithaca College and a student organization provide music therapy to local nursing home residents. With so much enthusiasm for the course and organization, Ithaca College may start offering a Music as Medicine major or minor.
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Researchers conducted a meta-analysis of existing studies to determine whether owning a pet is associated with various developmental outcomes. They found that overall, the relationship between pet companionship and a child’s development may be positively correlated; however, due to weaknesses in methodology, the results should be applied with caution.   Childhood and adolescence are crucial
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Subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy have been hypothesized to be associated with cognitive function in offspring. However, recently researchers found that treatment with levothyroxine is not associated with greater IQ in children of mothers who have thyroid disease during pregnancy.   The thyroid is a gland located in the front of the neck right
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The serotonin hypothesis of autism posits that fetal exposure to high levels of serotonin may increase the risk for developing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A new study investigated whether children born to mothers using prescription antidepressants that modulate serotonin levels were more likely to be diagnosed with ASD. Depression is one of the most frequent
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